Monday, September 16, 2019
Restructuring the ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC): Philippine Prospects for Regional Collective Defense and Stronger Military Relations Essay
Economic development through greater regional cooperation was the primary aim of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) when it was formed on August 8, 1967 by the founding countries of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Although one of the motivations at that time of forming the association was the common fear of communist expansion (especially in Vietnam) and insurgency within their respective borders, the ASEAN has not ventured into creating a military alliance to promote Ã¢â¬Å"regional peace and stabilityÃ¢â¬ . Hence, the ASEAN is formally recognized as an economic organization with no military obligations tying member nations. But with the recent rise of security tensions, primarily caused by the aggressive actions taken by China against the Philippines and co-claimant ASEAN nations over territories located at the South China Sea; the prospect of creating an ASEAN military alliance to solve the Ã¢â¬Å"Chinese security problemÃ¢â¬ , has become very tempting. The researcher believes that indeed, stronger military relations between ASEAN nations will not only help address the security threat posed by China but also assist in resolving the territorial disputes between co-memberÃ nations. Thus, this paper proposes a restructuring of the ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC) such that it will allow the establishment and creation of the following: (1) A regional military alliance that will promote collective defense (2) the ASEAN peacekeeping force and (3) the ASEAN Security Council. The paper also examines the imperative role of the United States and Japan in the resolution of the security issues in the region; the feasibility of the proposal in the context of the status quo, and the possible problems that will face the military alliance once it is forged. 1. INTRODUCTION During the 1970s until the 1990s, security issues began assailing the stability of the Southeast Asian (SEA) region as territorial disputes erupted between fellow ASEAN nations and China. The said disputes were mainly about the disagreement on maritime boundaries and territorial claims made on islands on the South China Sea (or the West Philippine Sea). The situation did not improve upon entering the 21st century as the conflicts seemed to worsen. In 2005, Chinese ships allegedly fired upon two Vietnamese fishing boats from Thanh Hoa province which killed 9 people.1 If there was something common with all the incidents of skirmishes and standoffs in the much contested area since the 1980s, it was the constant involvement of the Chinese navy. China was dubbed as the rising bully of the South China Sea. With a formidable military strength and an aggressive foreign policy in dealing with territorial disputes, China was becoming a great security menace to not only the Philippines and the SEA region but to the rest of the world. The stability of the SEA region is a paramount concern of Philippine national security, one of the three pillars of Philippine foreign policy. 2 Moreover, Philippine defense officials and security experts view Chinese expansionist aspirations in the South China Sea as the main longterm security threat to the Philippines. 3 The renewed tensions between the Philippines and China last April 8, 2012 at the Scarborough Shoal has led to speculations of a Philippine-China war and its implications to the Philippine-US mutualÃ defense treaty. International relations experts though, doubt the commitment of the US to come in the Philippines defense once it is attacked by China as it has not confirmed whether the scope of the treaty covers contested territories in the South China Sea.4 1 Ã¢â¬Å"Chinese ships Ã¢â¬Ëshot to killÃ¢â¬â¢ Vietnamese fishermen; survivorÃ¢â¬ . Vietnam Seaports Association. 17 January 2005. Ã¢â¬Å"Philippine Foreign PolicyÃ¢â¬ . The Official Website of the Republic of the Philippines Ã¢â¬â Department of Foreign Affairs. 11 August 2009. 3 Sokolsky, R., Rabasa A., & Neu, C. R. 2001, p. 33 4 Ã¢â¬Å"Stirring up the South China Sea (II): Regional ResponsesÃ¢â¬ . Inernational Crisis Group. 24 July 2012. 2 With that in mind, it is apparent then that relying on the US for military assistance in the event of a Chinese attack is useless. What the Philippines need is a military alliance of committed nations who have more or less the same stake in the South China Sea territorial dispute. That being said, the most logical choice would be creating an alliance with our fellow ASEAN claimant nations. 2. REGIONAL COLLECTIVE DEFENSE: ATTEMPT AND FAILURE The idea of creating an international organization for collective defense in the SEA region to offset growing Chinese influence is not new to international politics. In fact it was once tried with the signing of the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty or Manila Pact, in Manila, Philippines which created the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). The organization was then formally established on February 19, 1955 at a meeting of treaty partners in Bangkok, Thailand.5 One of the rationales for the creation of SEATO was to counteract communist influence in Southeast Asia, especially that of Communist China, through an anti-communist collective defense alliance.6 The organization though is generally considered a failure because internal conflict and dispute hindered general use of the SEATO military. Also, SEATO was inefficient in promoting regional stability (failing to prevent the escalation of the Vietnam War) as only two SEA nations joined the organization, namely the Philippines and Thailand. Majority of the members were located outside the region. After a final exercise on 20 February 1976, SEATO was formally dissolved on June 30, 1977.7 3. RESTRUCTURING THE ASEAN POLITICAL-SECURITY COMMUNITY (APSC) Former Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, in response to the growing threat of terrorism in the region, called for a collective security system within the ASEAN in 2004.8 But 5 Leifer 2005 Franklin 2006, p. 1 7 Encyclopaedia Britannica (India) 2000, p. 60 6 under the original ASEAN charter, a multilateral approach on military and security issues is disallowed. Furthermore, the ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC) in its blueprint has vowed to rely exclusively on peaceful processes in resolving intra-regional and extra-regional differences. Since the status quo hinders any step towards regional collective defense, a major overhaul would be required for the proposal to push through.9 This paper proposes a revision on the original ASEAN charter in a way that will allow the transformation of the APSC into an authoritative military body. Such transition will be facilitated by the creation of the ASEAN Security Council which will serve as the overseeing organ of the APSC and will assistÃ in the forging of a collective defense alliance and a peacekeeping force under the ASEAN. The fundamental concept of each proposal is discussed briefly below. 3.1 ASEAN Security Council The proposed body will serve as the highest authoritative body of the APSC and will be composed by the member states of the ASEAN and represented by a delegate from each nation. Its tasks will include (but will not be limited to) supervision, policy formulation and implementation, and decision-making regarding regional security issues under the APSC. 3.2 ASEAN Collective Defense Alliance The forging of this alliance must be legitimized under the ASEAN charter through the necessary amendments and should not in any way violate existing international laws. Under the proposed framework, every ASEAN nations must pledge to defend each other in the event of an extra-regional attack. In dealing with intra-regional disputes though, collective defense cannot be invoked. Any incidence of intra-regional conflicts will be subject to investigation of the ASEAN Security Council and will be decided on accordingly. 8 9 Ã¢â¬Å"ASEAN and collective security systemÃ¢â¬ . The Jakarta Post. 7 December 2004 See The ASEAN Charter, pp. 23-28 and ASEAN Political-Security Community Blueprint, pp. 8-14 3.3 ASEAN Peacekeeping Force During times of regional unrest caused by military conflict between member nations, the formation of a peacekeeping force maybe ordered by the ASEAN Security Council. The peacekeeping force will be composed of military personnel contributed by the non-involved states and will serve a specific term or until the conflict is resolved. Duties of the ASEAN peacekeeping force will include protecting civilians, assisting in post-war disarmament, escorting of important diplomats and peace negotiators, demobilization andÃ reintegration of former combatants. 4. POLITICAL-SECURITY IMPACT ANALYSIS The evocations of an ASEAN military pact will have a strong bearing on ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s future foreign policy. Perhaps a positive effect (if the recommendation is pursued) will be the taming down of the aggressiveness of China in dealing with the South China Sea issue. With a population of over 600 million people, a steady and growing economy, and tightening diplomatic relations with the U.S. and Japan; the military potential of the ASEAN cannot be simply overlooked. Both the U.S. and Japan, with their political and economic stakes in Southeast Asia and shared apprehension of the growing Chinese power, are likely to support a militarily united ASEAN to secure their interests in the region. Furthermore, a militarily integrated ASEAN eases the burden of the U.S. in playing the role of regional balancer and provides both countries with a strong political leverage in dealing with Chinese expansionism in the South China Sea. That being said, it is only logical to count on both technical and moral support from the two extraregional powers should the ASEAN decide to pursue the endeavor. Another possible positive outcome will be the proficient resolution of intra-regional conflicts. Under the proposed APSC framework, existing and future intra-regional disputes will be settled through the ASEAN Security Council instead of state-to-state negotiations. A collective defense alliance also serves as deterrence to any thought of aggression towards a comember and strengthens solidarity through a common sense of military identity. But other considerations like the reactions of Chinese allies or even those of neutral observers to the region will also matter. A negative feedback by the international community can have a bad implication to the future of the proposed collective defense organization. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction itself is also an important consideration. Although it is more likely that China will become more restrained in dealing with a militarily united ASEAN in the South China Sea, one cannot absolutely ascertain such outcome. An opposite course of what is expected, however unlikely, is still possible. Another point to ponder upon is the role the Philippines will play in the pursuance of an ASEAN military pact. Do we play the regional leader role and take on the initiative? Or become a regional-subsystem collaborator and let another ASEAN nation assume the central role? Whatever it may be, it is a necessity for the Philippines to pick an active role if it is to protect its interest in the matter. 5. CONLUSION Establishing a collective defense system within the ASEAN will not be an easy job. There will be many obstacles towards the path: socio-cultural divisions, lingering tensions over unresolved territorial feuds, and differing levels of threat perceptions dims the prospects of turning the organization into a formal military pact.10 But as highlighted earlier, the pressing need of military cooperation in the light of the Chinese threat can override the said obstacles. The support of extra-regional powers like Japan and the US will be vital to the success of the proposal. The U.S. who is trying to preserve its hegemony and Japan who is currently involved in a territorial dispute with China over the Senkaku islands, will likely support the advancement of the ASEAN into a collective defense organization considering the political advantage they will be able to reap from it. International feedback will also play a significant role in the success or failure of proposal. The approval (or disapproval) of the international community will greatly affect the progress and future of an ASEAN collective defense system. But what matters most is the 10 Sokolsky, R., Rabasa A., & Neu, C. R. 2001, pp. 45-47 reaction of China and its allies. A strong negative response from the aforementioned can easily plunge the region into a state of cold warÃ¢â¬â a possible outcome that is extremely contrary to the aims of the proposal. (Word count: 1679) Bilbliography: Books: Ã¯â · Franklin, John K. (2006). The Hollow Pact: Pacific Security and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. ProQuest. ISBN 978-0-542-91563-5. Ã¯â · Leifer, Michael (2005). Chin Kin Wah, Leo Suryadinata. ed. Michael Leifer: Selected Works on Southeast Asia. ISBN 978-981-230-270-0. Ã¯â · Sokolsky, R., Rabasa A. & Neu, C. R. (2001) The Role of Southeast Asia in U.S. Strategy Toward China. ISBN/EAN 0-8330-2893-6. Encylopedias: Ã¯â · Encyclopaedia Britannica (India) (2000). StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Britannica India, Volume Five. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5. Journals: Ã¯â · Holsti, K. J. (1970). National Role Conceptions in the Study of Foreign Policy. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 3 (Sep., 1970), pp. 233-309 Websites: Ã¯â · Inernational Crisis Group (July 24, 2012). Stirring up the South China Sea (II): Regional Responses. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from: http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/asia/north-east-asia/china/229-stirring-up-thesouth-china-sea-ii-regional-responses.aspx Ã¯â · The Official Website of the Republic of the Philippines Ã¢â¬â Department of Foreign Affairs. Philippine Foreign Policy. 11 August 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from: http://www.dfa.gov.ph/index.php/about-the-dfa/philippine-foreign-policy
Sunday, September 15, 2019
A) GFR and Ret51 both are receptors, GDNF is found to promote PNS development and kidney morphogenesis through the receptor complex consisting of GDNF family receptor 1 (GFR1) and the other receptor tyrosine kinase (Ret). Ret signal transduction is increased by translocation of GFR. GFR-mediated Ret activation is essential too for the kidney morphogenesis and for various other functions of abdominal precursors that form abdominal nervous system. Also, GFR has many lipid rafts because its GPI anchorage, but Ret is expelled from lipid rafts. In this paper, the gene replacement for GFR in mice results GDNF resulting in Ret activation but prevented its translocation into lipid rafts. These mice showed renal agenesis, and other disorders including loss of the enteric nervous system, and defects in motor neuron axon path similar to GFR mice that was knocked out, all this provided evidence along with lipid rafts GFR is also needed for neurotrophic factor signaling. B) Primary considerate neurons secluded from Gfr1and Gfr1TM/TM mice were maintained in vitro for some days. Then they treated the neurons with GDNF or medium for exact time of 15 minutes. The Detergent-resistant membranes quarantined from the neurons were examined by immunoblotting for Ret51. The comparative purity of detergent resistant and detergent soluble fractions was confirmed by using immunoblotting for caveolin and transferrin receptor, respectively B, the experiments shown in A, were computed and graphed. Otherwise, Substantial decline in the amount of Ret51 was recorded statistically that translocated into lipid rafts while GDNF stimulation in Gfr1TM/TM neurons compared with Gfr1 neurons. Similar Results were obtained after performing the experiment four times.Moreover, Lipid raft translocation experiments were performed to prove the concept that GDNF/GFR1/Ret complex does not translocate into lipid rafts in Gfr1TM/TM mice. Primary sympathetic neurons from Gfr1/ and Gfr1TM/TM mice were used to extract detergent-resistant membranes. Upon stimulation of Gfr1/ neurons with GDNF, Ret translocated quickly into lipid rafts. This was a contrast to Gfr1TM/TM neurons that an evident reduced movement of Ret into the detergent-resistant was recorded because of GDNF exposure. A small portion of Ret that did translocate into lipid rafts while stimulation may be owing to Ret kinase-dependent translocation of Ret into rafts that occurs with slower movements. There was a significant, 75% reduction in the kinetics of the Ret receptor complex into lipid rafts during GDNF exposure in Gfr1TM/TM neurons according to computation made by these experiments. C) The negative control design here for confirming the results that Ret doesn't translocate into lipid rafts during GFL activation in Gfr1TM/TM neurons, the primary sympathetic neurons isolated from Gfr1/and Gfr1TM/TM mice will be grown in the same way as test ones, with the only difference that there will be no treatment with GDNF or medium for 15 minutes, and the impact of this will confirm the result to much greater extent upon immunoblotting.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Introduction Matthew 6:9-13 is commonly referred as the Ã¢â¬Å"LordÃ¢â¬â¢s PrayerÃ¢â¬ . In this paragraph, Jesus presented a pattern of prayer to the disciples, thus suggesting the manner in which God should be addressed and the petition we are entitled to present to Him. What is it about this paper that intrigues so many people to dig into the meaning of it? It is interesting to see from the verses above that JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ prayer puts God in the first place. The first half of the prayer focuses exclusively on God and His agenda as believers adore, worship, and submit to His will before they introduce their own personal petitions.The second half of the prayer focuses on how should disciple invite God to their daily life and live upon GodÃ¢â¬â¢s continuous spiritual provision. Even with the second half where their wills are introduced, God still takes dominant position in the relationship. The discipleship of the followers thus is being presented through day-to-day prayers. Soci o-Historical Background To fully understand the meaning of the text, the first thing to do is to step back to examine the society where the text was written, back to the time where the incident happened, thus we can fully grasp the context of the paragraph.The Gospel of Matthew as we know it was almost certainly written before A. D 100. It is quoted by Ignatius (Smyrn. 1. 1), writing in approximately 110-115 A. D. , and probably referred to in the Didache, which may date to sometime in the late 90s. 2 External evidence helps us to confirm that Matthew wrote primarily to Jewish Christian congregation or congregations either on the verge of or just recovering from a substantial break from Judaism as a whole. 3 If Matthew depends on Mark, it must obviously be later than Mark, but the dating of Mark is equally uncertain.Most would place Mark under the Neronian persecution in the mid- to late-60s, but the evidence is highly inferential. 4 Various data within MatthewÃ¢â¬â¢s Gospel might also support an earlier dating. Why would only Matthew include references to the temple tax (17:24-27), offering (5:23-24) and ritual (23:16-22), or to Sabbath keeping in Judea (24:20) in an era (after 70) in which none of these was practiced any longer? Why would he stress JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ antagonism against the Sadducees in an age in which they had died out? One answer is that these things happened that way during JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ lifetime.But given the evangelistsÃ¢â¬â¢ consistent pattern of selecting episodes from JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ life that were theologically meaningful for their communities, one wonders if these data are not indirect pointers to a pre-70 date. The evidence is finely balanced, but it is believed there is a slight weight in favor of opting for a date in the 60s, sometime after the composition of Mark. The above surveys of the probable circumstances of its composition lead a majority today to conclude that the author was a Jewish Christian. 5 Strictly speaking, this Gos pel, like all four canonical Gospels, is anonymous.Canonical Matthew is written in relatively good Greek, better than Mark, but not as polished as that of the native Greek writer, Luke. Given the amount of Hellenization that had infiltrated Galilee by the first century, and given that regular contacts with Gentiles that a toll collector would have had, the apostle Matthew would have become reasonably cosmopolitan Jew, quite capable of this kind of writing. 6 Some have inferred from reference like 13:52 that Matthew himself was a scribe, either before or after becoming a Christian, and that he therefore could notÃ also have been a toll collector.7 In fact, if he were a Christian scribe or teacher, his previous experience with an occupation that required writing and record keeping might even have helped better prepare him for his later responsibilities. Without any ancient traditions to the contrary, Matthew remains the most plausible choice for author. This author, at least of an o riginal draft of this book, seems quite probably to have been the converted toll collector, also named Levi, who became one of JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ Twelve apostles (cf.10:3; 9:9-13; Mark 2:14-17).Literary Context Suggestions for MatthewÃ¢â¬â¢s Gospel have always involved apologetic design to try to convince non-Christian Jews of the truth of the Gospel, encouragement to the churchÃ¢â¬â¢s witness in a hostile world, and deepening Christian faith by supplying more details about JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ words and works. 8 All of these proposals make good sense and may well form part of MatthewÃ¢â¬â¢s intention. To what kind of church under what circumstance would such a Gospel to be addressed?The text itself never says. It is usually assumed that all of the Gospels are first of all addressed to Christian communities, since from the earliest days of Christian testimony that is where these documents are read. Suggestions about the church to which Matthew presumably is writing usually try to relate t he circumstances of that body of believers to the large Jewish world. Most of the testimony states merely that Matthew wrote Ã¢â¬Å"to the Hebrews,Ã¢â¬ although occasionally a place in Palestine is suggested.Modern scholars have often suggested Syria, especially its central city of Antioch, 9 which was up to one-seventh Jewish and a center of early Christian missionary effort. More fruitful is discussion of the type of situation within Judaism that would have provoked this Gospel. Some have argued for Gentile audience, and interpreted MatthewÃ¢â¬â¢s Jewish emphasis as teaching Gentile Christians how to appropriate their Jewish heritage and Scriptures. Others have remained content just to label the community Ã¢â¬Å"mixedÃ¢â¬ .Most interpreters recognize MatthewÃ¢â¬â¢s audience as Jewish-Christian congregation or congregations either on the verge o or just recovering from a substantial break from Judaism as a whole. Graham Stanton suggests the concept of the church having bro ken from but still in debate with the synagogue. 10 Studies of Ã¢â¬Å"formative JudaismÃ¢â¬ point out how diverse Jewish thought and practice were before AD 70. After the destruction of the temple, however, only two primary branches emerged: rabbinic Judaism and Christian Judaism.The tension was quite high as each of these groups competed in the same communities to defend the claim that they alone were the true heirs to their religious heritage. 11 A situation like this can explain how Matthew could be so concerned to show Jesus as the fulfillment of all things Jewish and yet stress the rebellion of IsraelÃ¢â¬â¢s leaders, comparable in MatthewÃ¢â¬â¢s mind to the hostility of the synagogue leadership in his day. Passage Analysis/Implication The paragraph selected is commonly known as the Ã¢â¬Å"LordÃ¢â¬â¢s PrayerÃ¢â¬ . Versions of this prayer appear in both Matthew 6:9-13 and Luke 11:2-4.Ã¢â¬Å"Pray then like thisÃ¢â¬ is rendered similarly by most translation. Translato rs may have Ã¢â¬Å"When you pray, you should pray in this way,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Your praying should be like this,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"When you pray, this is the kind of prayer you should make. Ã¢â¬ The form of address in Matthew (Our Father who art in heaven) appears in Luke simply as Ã¢â¬Å"FatherÃ¢â¬ (Luke 11:2). The modifier Ã¢â¬Å"OurÃ¢â¬ reminds us that no believer stands alone, while Ã¢â¬Å"in heavenÃ¢â¬ serves both to differentiate the heavenly Father from earthly fathers and at the same time to preserve the distant between God and man.The use of first-person plural pronouns through out the prayer reminds us that our praying ought to reflect the corporate unity, desires, and needs of the entire church. Ã¢â¬Å"Hallowed be thy nameÃ¢â¬ is translated Ã¢â¬Å"may your name be honoredÃ¢â¬ by Phps and Ã¢â¬Å"May your name be held in reverenceÃ¢â¬ by Brc. With regard to the last part of this verse and the entirety of the following verse, it is observed that the three p etitions are parallel in thought, and both the passive form and the use of Ã¢â¬Å"nameÃ¢â¬ reflect the attitude of reverence found in Jewish prayers. Ã¢â¬Å"Thy kingdom comeÃ¢â¬ is parallel to the first petition.The reference is to the final establishment of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s reign on earth. And the prayer requests that God establish his reign for us, not that we establish for him. The next petition, Ã¢â¬Å"Thy will be done, On earth as it is in heavenÃ¢â¬ , is not found in LukeÃ¢â¬â¢s presentation of the LordÃ¢â¬â¢s prayer. This petition is an exact parallel to the first petition concerning the honoring of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s name, and as such it also stands parallel with the second petition. The meaning of the petition may be expressed in a variety of ways: Ã¢â¬Å"May people obey you as you are obeyed in heavenÃ¢â¬ (MACL),Ã¢â¬Å"May you to obeyed all over the earth as your are obeyed in heavenÃ¢â¬ (INCL). Ã¢â¬Å"Thy will be doneÃ¢â¬ is a passive and does not specify who i s to do GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will. Many translations have to say Ã¢â¬Å"may people do what you willÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"the things you will, may people carry them out on earth, just as those in heaven do. Ã¢â¬ Some translations have understood the prayer to be asking that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will be done on earth and be done in heaven, whereas it is probably better to assume that his will is already done in heaven, and that the prayer is that people on earth carry out his will just as it is already carried out in heaven.The first half of the prayer thus focuses exclusively on God and his agenda as believers adore, worship, and submit to his will before they introduce their own personal petitions. Ã¢â¬Å"Give us this day our daily breadÃ¢â¬ is a short verse but difficult to interpret. The problem concerns the meaning of the word rendered Ã¢â¬Å"dailyÃ¢â¬ . The word appears only in Christian literature, and its origin and meaning have never been explained to the satisfaction of all. Several sol utions have been offered and are summarized in the commentaries.One of the standard Greek lexicons presents them in the following order: (1) Ã¢â¬Å"Necessary for existence. Ã¢â¬ Some commentators say that this interpretation makes the petition less than spiritual, but Jesus and his followers took seriously the needs of the body. (2) Ã¢â¬Å"For the current day, for today. Ã¢â¬ This seems to be the interpretation favored by translations that render Ã¢â¬Å"dailyÃ¢â¬ . (3) Ã¢â¬Å"For the following day. Ã¢â¬ This would refer to the daily ration of bread, given for the next day; therefore, Ã¢â¬Å"give us today our daily portion.Ã¢â¬ Mft translates Ã¢â¬Å"give us to-day our bread for tomorrow,Ã¢â¬ while Brc renders Ã¢â¬Å"Give us today our bread for the coming day. Ã¢â¬ There are several possibilities of meaning. If the prayer was said in the morning, the Ã¢â¬Å"coming dayÃ¢â¬ would be the day in progress. If future reference would permit an eschatological interpretat ion as well, in which case the Ã¢â¬Å"coming dayÃ¢â¬ could be the coming Messianic banquet. However, in this context such an interpretation is highly unlikely. (4) Ã¢â¬Å"Bread for the future. Ã¢â¬ This is discussed under (3). It is so called eschatological interpretation.The first two alternatives are similar to each other. The third alternative, if taken as a reference to the present day, comes to mean essentially the same as the first two possibilities. The fourth interpretation, though attractive, does not seem to be in focus in the present passage. Since an eschatological interpretation should be rejected, the translation of Ã¢â¬Å"this dayÃ¢â¬ should not be Ã¢â¬Å"in these daysÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"in this ageÃ¢â¬ . It means simply Ã¢â¬Å"todayÃ¢â¬ , although it can be Ã¢â¬Å"each dayÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"day by dayÃ¢â¬ in some constructions, depending on how Ã¢â¬Å"dailyÃ¢â¬ is dealt with.The Greek word for Ã¢â¬Å"breadÃ¢â¬ is here used with the wider meaning of Ã¢â¬Å"foodÃ¢â¬ . Some have wanted to take Ã¢â¬Å"breadÃ¢â¬ to mean more than Ã¢â¬Å"foodÃ¢â¬ , feeling it represents all our needs, spiritual and physical. Most translators will follow the examples listed under the first two interpretations: Ã¢â¬Å"Give us each day the food we need. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"ForgiveÃ¢â¬ has proved very difficult to translate. It can be expressed with some figure of speech such as Ã¢â¬Å"Forget the wrong,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"no longer see the wrongÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"DebtsÃ¢â¬ represents a literal rendering of the Greek word.However, commentators note that the word is here sued figuratively for Ã¢â¬Å"sinsÃ¢â¬ . Spiritual debts to God are first of all in view. Our plea for continued forgiveness as believers, requesting the restoration of fellowship with God following the alienation that sin produces, is predicated on our having forgiven those who have sinned against us. As verse 15 stressed, without this interpersonal reconciliation on the human level, n either can we be reconciled to God. In the clause Ã¢â¬Å"As we also have forgivenÃ¢â¬ , the pronoun Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ is emphatic.The verb Ã¢â¬Å"have forgivenÃ¢â¬ represents an aorist indicative in Greek. A number of translations give it a habitual or timeless force. Other specify that the action is past in reference to the petition for God to forgive. The word Ã¢â¬Å"asÃ¢â¬ is important. Some translators have taken it to mean Ã¢â¬Å"becauseÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"sinceÃ¢â¬ . But it is better to have Ã¢â¬Å"in the same wayÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"just asÃ¢â¬ . That is, we ask God to forgive us in the same manner we forgive other. The final petition is especially difficult to interpret. The Greek word translated Ã¢â¬Å"temptationÃ¢â¬ may also means Ã¢â¬Å"trial, persecution.Ã¢â¬ The petition does not imply Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢t bring us to the place of temptationÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢t allow us to be tempted. Ã¢â¬ GodÃ¢â¬â¢s spirit has already done both of these with Je sus (4:1). Nor does the clause imply Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢t tempt usÃ¢â¬ because God has promised never to do that anyway. Rather, in light of the probable Aramaic underlying JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ prayer, these words seem best taken as Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢t let us succumb to temptationÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢t abandon us to temptation. Ã¢â¬ 12 We do of course succumb to temptations every once in a while but never because we have no alternative (1 Corinthians 10:13).Thus when we give in, we have only ourselves to blame. The second clause translates a verb that may mean either Ã¢â¬Å"rescue fromÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"protect against. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"EvilÃ¢â¬ translates a noun that may also mean Ã¢â¬Å"the evil oneÃ¢â¬ . The New Testament scholars are divided on their judgment. Some are of the opinion that the word is a neuter, inasmuch as neither Hebrew nor Aramaic uses Ã¢â¬Å"the evil oneÃ¢â¬ to denote Satan. Others, basing their judgment upon 13:19, believe that the phrase may refer to the Evil One, that is, the Devil. In either case, the power of evil is here spoken of as a reality.Numerous late manuscripts add various forms of a conclusion to JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ prayer, probably based on 1 Chr 29:11-13, no doubt to give the prayer a proper doxology that otherwise lacked. This well-known conclusion appears in the NIV margin but almost certainly did not appear in MatthewÃ¢â¬â¢s original text. 13 14 Conclusion The Ã¢â¬Å"LordÃ¢â¬â¢s PrayerÃ¢â¬ is in fact closer to a discipleÃ¢â¬â¢s prayer in its content. As the sinless One, Jesus cannot ask God to forgive his sin. However, Jesus sets up an example of prayer for us to follow.Only with the fulfillments of various petitions can we reconcile with God in unity. We are called to honor GodÃ¢â¬â¢s name in our daily life. We are called to be used by God and obey Him in building His kingdom. We shall pray to God everyday for the needs of our body, and ask for forgiveness of our sin. Jesus is calling disciples to pray for deliverance from and protection in testing. We surely cannot avoid testing as such. God lets us to be tested by the evil one to confirm our faith in Him. When such testing comes, only GodÃ¢â¬â¢s strength can see us through.We may note that the use of plural pronoun Ã¢â¬Å"ourÃ¢â¬ reminds us that just as we approach God as our heavenly Father, we must remember GodÃ¢â¬â¢s other children as our brothers and sisters. I must seek not only my daily bread but also the needs of my brothers and sisters in Christ. 15 Application This prayer is a great reminder for a highly individualized society we have. We pray for everything in our lives no matter big or small. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing wrong with praying all the time, but often times most of the prayers we say are about ourselves.We prayer for better grades, better health, more time, more patience, better lives, etc. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s always about us. We often fail to realize that we are trying to take control of everything. We pray to God for His Ã¢â¬Å"helpÃ¢â¬ instead of letting Him be in control of the situation. Through the studying of this prayer, I realize that only through GodÃ¢â¬â¢s power can we stand against the storms in our lives, and through him can we find the true peace. Also, we must seek not only the provision for ourselves, but also those around us. Our own intimacy with God must lead to prayer for and active commitment to the needs of all his people.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Chemistry in Life - Research Paper Example to remember is that all forms of money are collectively called as currency, which in turn refers to all the money coins and banknotes which are generally accepted and in wide use in the country to which it pertains. The currency of a country is its so-called legal tender that in turn implies the medium of payment recognized by the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s legal system. Implication in a country having a legal tender means it is valid for meeting a financial obligation. In other words, a creditor (lender) is obligated to accept any payment made in legal tender towards the repayment of a debt owed by a debtor (borrower). A good but short example is when someone pays in American dollars then the lender cannot refuse to accept such payment since a dollar is the legal tender in America (although some states accept gold or silver coins as payment). If the borrower intends to pay in kind (like mineral ores or cocaine or cattle or something else), a creditor can refuse such payment since it is not co nsidered as legal tender and can be refused to be accepted to extinguish a debt, financial obligation or some other consideration. However, before coinage was invented, barter was used which is just a simple kind of exchange for one type of goods for another type of goods or resources. An example will be a person wants to buy a loaf of bread but lacking any money, he pays for it with a live chicken depending on their agreed value of exchange (there must be some semblance of parity). Most historians are generally agreed that coins were invented at around 700 B.C.E. (before current era) independently in Lydia (now a part of modern-day Turkey), in India, and in China. Barter is a form of direct exchange by which goods and services were exchanged for another set of goods and services without the benefit of using a medium of exchange (currency). Barter has a set of inherent problems such as the difficulty in determining the exact or accurate value of an intended exchange between two kinds of
Thursday, September 12, 2019
MGR #5 - Essay Example Willard covers some of the main subjects of the spiritual life. From WillardÃ¢â¬â¢s reading, the paper draws some of the major takeaways through presenting thoughts on readings that made a significant impression. I realized that solitude according to Willard is the full abstinence from interaction with other people and denying ourselves companionship and everything that comes from our conscious interaction with other people. According to me, this was rather demanding to a Christian. As much as one needs time in solitude with God, going to a harsh condition such as the desert, wilderness, and the ocean may not be a better option. It is because it fails to promote our social interaction with man. I find it conflicting as God commands us to interact fruitfully with fellow men, and this is the instruction that solitude limits. Additionally, I appreciated that submission, as a discipline of engagement, is the highest level of fellowship. It sustains humility, transparency and complete submission during restitution and confession. I concur with WillardÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts on this discipline. It is because if one submits to a high-level authority he or she indicates that he respects his power. However, people must take care to avoid the misuse of this privilege in making young people submit to
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
AT&T - Essay Example The core assumption behind this movement of net income is the increasing expected costs and expenses of the company of the forth-coming periods. A little variation is the assets of the company is forecasted and the levels of assets are not expected to increase or decrease significantly. The company plans to reduce the levels of its equity in the future periods with minor deductions. AT&T tries to improve the paid dividends by increasing the value slightly every year, these movements show that the organization is planning and persuading an organic growth for the future periods. The cash flow generation is likely to drop down every year due to increased expected expenses. Due to increased expenses, the profit margins of the company will be affected and expected to fall in the future periods. The retention ratio also signifies the affect of gradual declinations of retained profits over the years and is dropping down following the same trend of Earnings of the company. The asset turnover is expected to increase due to increasing sale and reducing assets, the ratio is expected to improve continuously every year. The financial gearings of the company are assumed to remain stable with little variation that will make the company more predictable to the investors by consistency in the in the operational and financial sustainability of the organization. (Helfert,
The Fair Trade Movement - Research Paper Example The contemporary fair trade movement traces its roots back in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s when it was known as the Alternative Trade Organizations (ATO). Evidently, Alternative Trade Organizations were formed by humanitarian groups that sought to address the pertinent issue of poverty in the developing countries through alleviation measures. To this end, the humanitarian groups adopted the approach of cutting off the middleman from the supply chain of trade between small scale businesses in the Southern hemisphere and small scale producers in the Northern hemisphere (Warrier, 100). Evidently, Oxfam UK intervened by selling craftwork in Oxfam shops which were produced by Chinese refugees (Hutchens, 5). To this end, the result was increased amount of profits for the labour force in developing nations. In 1988, the Dutch chapter of the Alternative Trade Organizations, Solidarid, innovatively crafted a labelling mechanism. Evidently, it aided in the introduction of products within mainstream marke ts without betraying consumer trust in their acts of humanitarian assistance. Background Information In 1964, Oxfam UK formed the first Fair Trade Organization (Warrier, 100). In this regard, there were parallel interventions being undertaken in Netherlands. Consequently, an importing organization known as Fair Trade Original was created in 1967. To this end, Dutch third world associations started to sell sugar cane under the slogan, Ã¢â¬Å"by buying sugar cane, you offer poor people in third world countriea a chance in the sun of prosperityÃ¢â¬ . Moreover, the third world Dutch groups proceeded to sell Southern handicrafts and by 1969, they opened the first Ã¢â¬ËThird World Shop.Ã¢â¬â¢ ... Consequently, this led to the creation of numerous Southern Fair Trade Organizations which established networks with the newly created Northern organizations (Hutchens, 5). Evidently, the North and South co-operation was centred on respect, dialogue, transparency and partnership. The mutual goal was towards achieving better equity in international trade. In addition, developing countries were engaged in international political platforms towards addressing the inequality and unfairness in international trade. In this regard, during the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development that took place in Delhi in 1968, the developing nations were addressing the issue of Ã¢â¬ËTrade not Aid.Ã¢â¬â¢ To this end, the third world countries emphasized on the creation of mutual, and equitable trade partnership with the South. This was in defiance to the NorthÃ¢â¬â¢s approach which was involved in getting all the benefits and offering piecemeal benefits masqueraded as developmental aid. Evidently, development trade has been attributed to the growth of Fair Trade Movement since the late 1960s. Moreover, its growth is attributed to the responsive intervention against poverty as well as partly due to disaster emanating from the South. Its major focus during its inception was the marketing promotion of craft items. The eminent founders of the Fair Trade Movement were drawn from large humanitarian and religious organizations located in European countries. Consequently, collaboration with Southern counterparts led to the creation of Southern Fair Trade Organizations (Warrier, 100). Evidently, the Southern Fair Trade Organizations performed the work of