Thursday, March 12, 2020
Research Paper on Divorce Divorce has become a major issue in our society, and many causes have been attributed to the incline in divorce rates. Divorce rates have spiked during the past few decades and no on really knows why, but several theories have been formed in an attempt to explain this recent phenomena. Feminist theory, Individualism, and dual income theories will be discussed and analyzed to determine if they apply to the recent rise in divorce rates in North America. These theories do not act alone, that is, a not one of the above theories can be labeled as a definite cause of divorce, but when all three are examined together, a formula for divorce can be seen. The rise in divorce can not be, and should not be, attributed to a single theory, but rather the rise in divorce rates can be linked to all three, and one can see that these theories act collectively, as opposed to individually to cause the dramatic spike in divorce rates. In recent years, Feminist theory has become pushed its way through traditional theory to become recognized. This theory directly applies divorce rates, as it taught women to stand up for their rights, and that they could do anything they wanted. This included activities that were previously occupied by men only. Feminist theory taught women that they did not need to depend on men for emotional support, financial support, or even to give them status in society, rather, feminist theory taught independence. Some forms of feminist theory has established that women do not need men to survive; a quote to back this up is one from Gloria Steinem, and she says Ã¢â¬Å" A woman needs a man like a fish needs a bicycle.Ã¢â¬ This backs up the idea that women do not need men to function, and this can be seen as a cause for a higher divorce rate. Some feminist theories are seen as extreme and Eva Figes displays the radical feminist theory when she says, Ã¢â¬Å"Either one goes on gradually liberat ing the divorce laws, until marriage stands exposed as a hollow sham in which no one would wish to engage, or one takes a short cut and abolishes marriage altogether.Ã¢â¬ (Figes, pg. 121, patriarchal attitudes, 1972, Feminism Opposing Viewpoints, 1986) Since feminism has shown women that they no longer need to rely on men for support, some of them have begun to remove men from their lives. This, in turn can be correlated with the spike in divorce rates since the beginning of the feminist movement. The end of the institution of marriage is a necessary condition for the liberation of women. Therefore it is important for us to encourage women to leave their husbands -Declaration of Feminism. This idea, again, shows the way that feminist theory has attributed to the divorce rates. This idea is essentially telling women that they must divorce their husbands in order to liberate women. This idea directly tells women to divorce their husbands in order to be liberated, and to aid in the liberation in all women. This is a main reason that Feminist theory has aided in the rise of divorce rates since the start of the feminist movement. A second theory on the rise of divorce rates is the theory of individualism. William J. Goode says that Ã¢â¬Å"In our time people have been reducing their personal investments in the collectivity of the family.Ã¢â¬ (Goode, pg. 9, World Changes in Divorce Patterns, 1993) This statement accurately portrays the idea of individualism as it is saying that people of the past few decades have stopped emphasizing the collectivity of society, and on a smaller scale family, and have begun to focus on personal gain and investment. Individualism is a mainly North American viewpoint that involves placing emphasis on the individual, rather than focusing on the group. Individualism looks at the Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ instead of the Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬ , and this can be translated into a cause of the recent divorce rates seen in North America. With individualism, people stop staying together for the kids; if a person from an individualistic society feels unhappy, or just simply wants out, they get out. Alon g with individualism has come a need for personal happiness. Goode believes this may be a reason for the rise in divorce rates and says, Ã¢â¬Å"One might also suggest that the culprit has been the incorrigible romanticism of this population, cherishing the dream of romantic life in marriage, believing in the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s right to pursue happiness, so that the grubby reality of daily married life seems to many a personal defeat.Ã¢â¬ (Goode, pg. 180-181, World Changes in Divorce Patterns, 1993) This shift from cultural values to individual values has put major pressure and stress on existing ideas about what marriage is about. It is this stress that leads to many splits; therefore one can presume that individualism correlates with divorce. A third theory about the rise in divorce rates is a theory brought on by feminist and individualist theory. This is the idea that more families are converting to a dual-income household; that is; both partners in marriage are working and pursuing separate careers. Some people believe that some of these careers move away from each other and can pull two partners apart so each individual can pursue his or her career. Most dual-income families spend less time together than single income families; therefor these families have less time to grow to love each other and more time to grow apart. This theory can also be linked to divorce rates in the sense that if you are focused on making a career work, then it becomes more difficult to provide the focus it takes to make a marriage work. People are just giving up on marriage because it has become less important to them than economical status. The need for dual income families has, indeed, shifted mentalities to economics, rather than marriage or love, and this can impact on existing marriages. When it became almost necessary for both partners to have careers, a strain was put on marriages, and this strain has aided in the spike of divorce rates. The focus is no longer on traditional male/breadwinner, female/homemaker roles, and this has been hard to adapt to for many people. Some people can not adapt, or could not adapt quickly enough to this change, so the force of separate careers pulled couples apart, often times ending marriages in divorce. A branch of the dual income effect is role conflict. Role conflict exists when there is scarce time to be divided between work and family. Gary L. Cooper and Suzan Lewis say Ã¢â¬Å"When people feel torn between the needs of their children and the demands of work, the subsequent conflict can be very distressing.Ã¢â¬ (Cooper, Lewis, pg. 78, Managing The New Work Force, 1994) This distress can, and often does lead to separation, or, in some cases, Divorce. Cooper and Lewis go on to say Ã¢â¬Å" Problems may arise if partners lack the time and energy to provide the practical or emotional support associated with having a homemaker wife.Ã¢â¬ (Cooper, Lewis, pg. 120, Managing The New Work Force, 1994) this is essentially saying that with the incorporation of new family ideas comes a change from traditional roles, that, in turn, may produce a lack of actions or support that has grown to be the norm in society. This can cause many problems as dual income situations may remove comfort areas of a relationship and, by doing this, a more stressful situation is created, which may eventually lead to divorce. Each of these theories can provide valuable insight on the rise of divorce rates over the past sixty years, but not one can be considered a cause, and one can not be labeled as more important than the other can. Feminist theory brings up a good point in the sense that it discusses the liberation of women and the new ideas and rights of women today. The points listed above are solid arguments to support the fact that divorce rates do correlate with the feminist movement. The same can be said for dual income families. One can see that there is a correlation with the movement from traditional families and an increase in divorce rates. Again, the same can be said for individualism. With society moving from collectivism into individualism, the sense of family solidarity can be lost. This is why all three theories are applicable to the rise of divorce rates, and these rates will continue to rise as societal value changes.
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Pro-Choice Versus Pro-Life - Research Paper Example There is no end in sight to the pro-life versus pro-choice argument. The pro-life argument is against the practice of abortion and the legalizing of abortion. In the pro-life argument, the main point of view is surprisingly supported both by religion and science. The religious perspective is that life begins at conception. It is a gift of God and human beings do not have the right to deny this life from seeing the light of day. This makes abortion tantamount to murder. Science supports this argument through its findings that the fetus starts to display several determinants of life at a very early stage. Thus the main basis of the argument against abortion is based on the fetus as an individual life separated from that of the mother, and that it is wrong to destroy such life. It also goes on to argue that abortion is the denial of the right to life of the fetus, and by abetting abortion, society would be guilty of denial of the rights of the fetus The other perspectives against abortion include the harm that abortions cause the mother and the impact of abortions on society. Abortions are unsafe and can lead to severe complications for the woman immediately after the abortion, or in terms of long term complications, including the dreaded breast cancer. Other complications could be demonstrated at the time of delivery of a child, should the woman choose to have a baby later. The impact on society lies in two arguments. The first is the economic costs to society as a result of abortion. The second argument is that if the fetus is morally expendable, child abuse is bound to arise. Instead of abortion, avoidance of unnecessary pregnancies could be brought about through the use of contraceptives or abstinence from sexual activity. (2) Ã
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Organizational Performance - Assignment Example Usually, upon observing the extrinsically motivated employees, even the intrinsically motivated people may start to improvise on their perfection for attaining such extrinsic benefits. A manager should understand the types of motivation he should employ according to the personality of the employee and behave accordingly. The same differences can be tabulated in Appendix 1. (Quinn. S., 2010) The point where intrinsic and extrinsic motivations get exchanged is the ultimate place for job satisfaction and performance. However, this goal can never be explained arbitrarily. It has to be explained in terms of processes which have been enumerated in the following theories: MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Need Hierarchy: Every human being has 5 levels of needs, one superior to the other as explained in Appendix 2: It is the tendency of every individual to try and satisfy the needs from the bottom of the triangle to the top. Once the physiological needs get satisfied, he moves on to the security oriented needs and so on. As he starts moving higher up, the extrinsic rewards for which he was earlier motivated should be accompanied by his intrinsic motivation to achieve job satisfaction and performance. There is a natural tendency to move up and down the triangle continuously according to the circumstances. HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of hygiene and motivation: Factors of hygiene contribute to the extrinsic motivation and constitute of work conveniences like good relationships with peers, supervisors, salary etc.
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Kraft Foods Essay Kraft Foods is an extremely well recognized brand that provides a vast array of food and beverage products with the ultimate goal Ã¢â¬Å"to become North AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s best food and beverage companyÃ¢â¬ (Kraft, 2014). Critical analysis of Kraft Foods mission, vision and values statements revealed some necessary changes to enhance organizational success. Kraft Foods will become the top in their industry by continuing to develop and sell products tailored to their consumers needs/demands. Assisting consumers to make healthy life choices is part of their dedication to stakeholders. Through incentives and rewards employees will remain dedicated, motivated and have pride in Kraft Foods products thereby increasing financial growth. Kraft Foods understands that contributing to the community is essential for lasting success. Actively protecting natural resources will leave a huge footprint and legacy for Kraft Foods.Ã Kraft Foods mission statement is very generic and broad in nature. By narrowing and focusing this goal they will guarantee their future success. The vision and values statements are well written and invoke memories and emotions from their stakeholders thereby drawing them to Kraft Foods. Introduction Since its establishment in 1903 Kraft Foods has become a well respected household name (Kraft Foods, 2014). Over the last century Kraft Foods has bought out many of their competitors and expanded their line of products, keeping them as one of the top food and beverage companies in the nation (Kraft Foods). In order to remain successful and accomplish their missionÃ it is imperative their business statements accurately reflect their vision and values. In this paper the author will discuss the mission, vision and values of Kraft Foods and how these powerful statements contribute to their overall success in the industry. Mission Statement Analysis Every organization should present a powerful clearly articulated statement as to why their organization exists (McNamara, 2009). This statement should convey to outside stakeholders the benefits of conducting business together to increase chances of financial success. Kraft FoodÃ¢â¬â¢s mission statement reads Ã¢â¬Å"our aim is to be North AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s best food and beverage companyÃ¢â¬ (Kraft Foods, 2014). Kraft FoodÃ¢â¬â¢s mission statement is very simple, generic and lacks sufficient depth, especially given the size of the Kraft Foods organization. Mission statements should include strong powerful words that articulate and enunciate an organization, resulting in a memorable impression that remains on the forethought of all the stakeholders (Ramjee, n.d.). A mission statement is short term future goals and it is therefore imperative that organizations readdress their mission statements from time to time (Rector, 2010). With all the health phenomenon concerns in North America it is pivotal Kraft Foods continue to reevaluate their mission and re-strategize as needed to remain on the top of their industry and draw new clientele to their organization. The ability to use different marketing strategies, seize different opportunities will draw new stakeholders to Kraft Foods thereby ensuring mission success and financial growth. Vision Statement Analysis An efficient and effective vision statement is a powerful tool that paints a vivid picture while describing how an organization is going to accomplish their mission (McNamara, 2009). This one statement can convey power, confidence and inspire stakeholders (Change Factory, 2014). A vision statement takes into consideration an organizations market, customers, strengths and weaknesses in order to enhance themselves (Change Factory). Kraft Foods vision statement reads Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬â¢ll get there by continuing to offer products consumers love, creating a performance-based culture that motivatesÃ and excites employees and becomes the best investment in the industryÃ¢â¬ (Kraft Foods, 2014). With this simple sentence Kraft Foods inspires, motivates and invokes memories from their stakeholders. Painting a vivid picture for stakeholders invokes emotions from past experiences. These memorable impressions stay with stakeholders and they are therefore more likely to support Kraft Foods. This influential statement also describes the most cherished values, services and vision of the future thereby allowing stakeholders to determine if their personal values meet up with that of Kraft Foods future and if investment in this organization is beneficial (Crea, n.d.). Another aspect of vision statements is the ability to state realistic outcomes (Millard, 2010). Realistic outcomes are imperative as they motivate employees and help them focus on something bigger than themselves (Millard). Meeting these goals, Ã¢â¬Å"offering products consumers loveÃ¢â¬ enhances dedications, motivation and pride, which will further enhance Kraft Foods success (Kraft Foods, 2014). The vision statement for Kraft Foods is well articulated, creates a vision of the future company, invokes emotions and draws stakeholders to the organization. Values Statement Analysis In addition to mission and vision statements a values statement will enhance an organizations chance of future success. A values statement is the core of an organization and what values they cherish (Edmunds, 2014). It defines how employees will behave and how actions and behaviors will be evaluated (Edmunds). A values statement reveals how an organization values not only their customers, but suppliers, shareholders and stakeholders (Edmunds). At Kraft Foods their values statement reads to Ã¢â¬Å"make a difference in communities, protect greatest resources Ã¢â¬â land, air, water, people, educate and motivate to make healthful choices, food safety and quality, and workplace safetyÃ¢â¬ (Kraft Foods, 2014). It is essential a values statement identify and address the organizational values in a clear concise manner so every stakeholder knows and understands what will be tolerated within the organization. The clear writing of Kraft Foods vision statement allows people to contribute to something bigger then themselves. An added benefit of a values statement is rewards and recognitions are structured around thisÃ statement and those employees who embrace the organizational values are identified and rewarded (Edmunds). This statement tells shareholders how the organization hires and promotes individuals and demonstrates that Kraft Foods external suppliers are in alignment with the organizations values, thus enhancing bonds of trust and respect. Alignment of Goals/Needs with Stakeholders Interests The mission, vision and value statements all work together to define an organization. Additionally these statements need to address the goals and needs of the shareholders and stakeholders thereby insuring future investors. Through their business statements Kraft Foods specifically addressed four stakeholder needs they hope to meet. Kraft Foods addresses consumers by focusing on Ã¢â¬Å"quality, safe food that consumers loveÃ¢â¬ in their vision and values statements (Kraft Foods, 2014). Additionally Kraft Foods values statement discusses their dedication to helping North Americans Ã¢â¬Å"make healthy food choicesÃ¢â¬ (Kraft Foods). Their dedication is also evident by the accumulation of healthy name brands products, such as Back to Nature granola (Kraft Foods). The values statement of Kraft Foods also addresses the organizations dedication to Ã¢â¬Å"making a difference in the communityÃ¢â¬ (Kraft Foods, 2014). Kraft Foods is leaving a positive impression, huge footprints and taking massive strides Ã¢â¬Å"to make the world a better place with every action they takeÃ¢â¬ (Kraft Foods). This is apparent by their dedication to food drives aimed at fighting hunger, providing humanitarian support, building playgrounds, and planting gardens (Kraft Foods). Kraft Foods also addresses their employees, one of the biggest stakeholders, in their business statements. Employees at Kraft Foods are Ã¢â¬Å"treated with respect, provided a safe work environment, and encouraged to do great thingsÃ¢â¬ (Kraft Foods, 2014). This organization understands that success is dependent on motivated, driven and dedicated employees that take pride in their work. Additionally, through their business statements Kraft Foods is telling the outside world about their employee commitment thus developing respect from the community, industry and other stakeholders. Kraft Foods understands that in order to be successful a strong cooperate governance must be establish to help balance the needs of shareholders and stakeholders (Kraft Foods, 2014). Ã¢â¬Å"Kraft Foods Board of Directors believe effective corporate governance provides a strong framework to assist them in upholding their fiduciary responsibilities to shareholders and promote long term success of the organizationÃ¢â¬ (Kraft Foods). Improvements of the Company Statements Kraft Foods is one of the largest organizations in North America and it is essential their business statements accurately reflect their dedication and drive to succeed. Although admirable, Kraft Foods mission statement is very generic and lacks the special connection to draw stakeholders to the organization. In comparing McNamaraÃ¢â¬â¢s list of criteria for a well written mission statement Kraft Foods falls short (2009). This statement is not powerful, not memorable, does not discuss growth and profit sufficiently and does not target specific clientele (McNamara). Additionally their goals are extremely far reaching and unattainable. The mission statement needs to be more focused in order to keep stakeholders motivated and driven for success. The vision statement is well written and invokes emotions and memories from stakeholders while also being descriptive in how they will achieve success. Millard states vision statements should be clear, memorable, realistic and discuss positive outcomes (2010). Kraft Foods addresses each one of these criteria in their vision statement. This powerful statement draws stakeholders to the organization and makes they want to be a part of the success. It is the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion that Kraft Foods values statement clearly articulates the values Kraft Foods cherishes. This statement motivates people to join the Kraft Foods team and become part of something bigger. Kraft Foods is dedicated to leaving a lasting impression and legacy not only with consumers but the environment and this is clearly communicated in their values statement. Conclusion Developed in 1903 Kraft Foods has become one of North America top brands. Through their mission, vision and values statement Kraft Foods is able to communicate to stakeholders why the organization exists, where they are going in the future, how they will get there and their dedication to the world around them. Although some adjustments can be made to their mission statement, overall these statements are clearly written and draw stakeholders to Kraft Foods by invoking their emotions, memories and values. References Change Factory. (2014). The Components of a Good Vision Statement. Change Factory.Retrieved July 13, 2014 from http://www.changefactory.com.au/our-thinking/articles/thecomponents-of-a-good-vision-statement/ Crea, T. (n.d.). A Good Mission Statement. All About Leadership. Retrieved July 13, 2014 fromhttp://www.all-about-leadership.com/good-mission-statement.html Edmunds, S. (2014, May 6). What is a Value Statement? EHow. Retrieved July 12, 2014 fromhttp://www.ehow.com/about_5063071_value-statement_.html Kraft Foods. (2014). Retrieved July 12, 2014 fromhttp://www.kraftfoodsgroup.com/home/index.aspx McNamara, C. (2009). Developing a Mission Statement. Management Library Online. RetrievedJuly 12, 2014 from http://managementhelp.or/strategicplanning/mission-visiom-vales.htm Millard, S. (2010, December 7). Characteristics of Mission and Vision Statements. University ofHawaiÃ¢â¬â¢i Hilo. Retrieved July 10, 2014 fromhttp://hilo.hawaii.edu/strategicplan/documents/SPC18_10_Mission_and_Vision .pdf Rector, B. (2010, April 18). Clear, Concise Mission Statements. Memphis Business Journal.Retrieved July 10, 2014 fromhttp://www.bizjournals.com/memphis/stories/2010/04/19/smallb2.html Ramjee, P. (n.d.). The Important of Making a Good First Impression in Business. Chron SmallBusiness. Retrieved July 13, 2014 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/importancemaking-good-firstimpression-business-23065.html
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
It was a Monday morning and the topic of everyone's conversation was the past weekend. Usually explaining how drunk they were and the uncontrollable mishaps that we didn't even remember until the next day. For example, they tell their friends "Man, I was soooo wasted last night, I must have drank like 10 beers and like half a bottle of vodka", all told with smile of excitement hoping to do it again the next weekend. This regular occurrence got me thinking, why do we brag ourselves and praise others for accomplishing something that requires absolutely no skill? In short, why do we get drunk? I feel that some people drink in order to knock down or at least lower the wall of insecurities they have built up inside them even for just an instant. For example, my friend Mike attempts to be "...
Monday, January 13, 2020
Brain Blast! Factors Affecting Retention BY hypoactive Chapter I Statement of the problem: The different factors affecting retention of fourth year students of Vulcan Ecumenical School Three Specific Questions: Why do some people have a better memory than others? ; How do we remember? ; and Why do we forget? Significance of the Study: To widen the knowledge of the readers about retention; Alms to show different ways on how one can have a better retention; This study Is to benefit students especially those from Vulcan Ecumenical School Scope and Limitation This study mainly focuses on the senior students of Vulcan Ecumenical School.The articles gathered here are a combination of local and foreign literature. Chapter II Review of Related Literature Presented In this chapter Is a synthesis of facts that support the topic the researchers would want to prove. Included in the chapter is the definition of memory, parts of the brain that are in charge on remembering and forgetting, connectiv ity of the brain, a deeper understanding on autobiographical and semantic memory, long term and short term memory, how and why people remember and forget, the reason why some people have a better memory than others and some methods on how one can Improve his/her memory.Local Literature According to Alfonse M. Albany of Philippine star, the human brain weighing roughly one-and-a-half kilos, with a volume more or less half that of a medium-sized coconut, with its about 100 billion neurons, each with some 10,000 interconnections, is probably the most complex structure that we know. Yet, that structural complexity hardly begins to hint at the incredible variety and the enormity of its functions. Surely, this is a case of a whole that is vastly greater than the sum of its parts.Albany said that the brain is the seat of our consciousness and of our emotions, the repository of our memories. It synthesizes and analyses our sensory inputs, decides what behavioral responses are appropriate or necessary to promote our continued survival. And when parts of it fail to perform properly, we are burdened with depression, or schizophrenia, or Alchemist's diseases, or other such debilitating disorders. The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates put it well: Ã¢â¬Å"Men ought to know that from nothing else but the brain come Joys, delights, laughter and sports, and sorrows, grieves, despondency, and lamentations. No wonder the brain has been the subject of intense scientific scrutiny's for a very long time. A currently active area of study concerns the Ã¢â¬Å"connectivityÃ¢â¬ of the brain. Physiologists distinguish Ã¢â¬Å"structuralÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"anatomicalÃ¢â¬ connectivity from Ã¢â¬Å"functionalÃ¢â¬ connectivity and both from Ã¢â¬Å"effectiveÃ¢â¬ connectivity. The first merely means the physical connections between groups of neurons 1 . The second refers to correlated behaviors of different brain regions. The last involves the transfer of information from one region to another, possibly affecting the behavior of the latter ? a causal connection 2.Our Marvelous Brains On one of the articles of Koruna Sanchez she wrote that because of the amount of information that the human brain receives everyday, a sort of built-in filter kicks in to only allow those that seem important. Otherwise the brain would literally heat up and burn out faster than we would want it to. A good example was when a portrait of the famous Mona Lisa was shown to several persons, they all failed to notice a OF in the background, which of course is not in the original painting.Because we know, or supposed to know what the Mona Lisa looks like, we don't look at other details anymore. Misdirection's is another way to distract the brain. So many examples of seduction were shown, which is the bread and butter of a good magician or illusionist, and yes, even con artists and criminals. Your brain is made to focus on something while ignoring everything else. Watching a basketball bein g passed several times among players while totally ignoring a gorilla that walks among them. And this is what criminals like pickpockets master.That little bump on the shoulder is enough to distract you while they go after your wallet or purse. Or using beautiful women to get the attention of gullible men. You know the rest. Foreign Literature 1. Definition of memory According to lucid research. Mom, the human memory is a complex activity of the brain that allows us to store information and retrieve it again when we need it. There are two discrete memory systems: A system that keeps a record of our personal life experiences is usually called Autobiographical memory. A system that holds the knowledge about the world is called Semantic memory.It is possible for one system to work better than the other because these two work in somewhat different ways. For example, a student might have a good autobiographical memory and recall in detail everything about an event, but a poor semantic me mory o failing to remember things that need to be learned in school. Both memory systems can store information from all our senses Ã¢â¬â vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch Ã¢â¬â but in semantic memory visual and auditory-verbal modes of information usually predominate, unless another mode was particularly important.For example, a perfume maker would have a very well-developed semantic memory for doors. 2. Get to know your Brain Parts of the brain that is in charge of remembering and forgetting: The Cortex As said by Dry. Paul Nassau, the Cortex 5 is the outer covering of the brain. It is a word that translates to mean Ã¢â¬Å"bark of a treeÃ¢â¬ . This is one part of the brain that is responsible for your most complicated thinking abilities. Your memory, language, personality, intentional motor skills, spatial ability and visual perception are all controlled by the Cortex.The Medial Section of the Brain This part tends to be older and more primitive. These are responsible fo r controlling drives, impulses, fears, instincts, emotions, reflexes, subconscious processes and automatic behaviors. Supporter The Ã¢â¬Å"SubculturesÃ¢â¬ are the deeper brain structures. This permits a smooth integration of information processing in the brain. 3. Short-term Memory According to Keener Cherry, Short-term memory is also known as primary or active memory. It is the information that comes from giving attention to sensory memories.Duration of short-term Memory: Most of the information stored in this memory usually last for approximately 20 to 30 seconds. While many of our short-term memories are quickly forgotten, attending to this situation allows it to continue on the next stage Ã¢â¬â Long-term memory. The Capacity of Short-term Memory: Ã¢â¬Å"The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus TwoÃ¢â¬ , expert psychologist George Miller suggested that people can store between five and nine items. More recent research suggests that people are capable of storing approximate ly four chunks of information in short-term memory. . Long-term Memory According to Keener Cherry, Long-term memory refers to the continuing storage of information. The information is largely outside of our awareness, but can be called into working memory to be used when needed. Some of the information is easy to recall, while others are more difficult to access. Duration of Long-term Memory: Long-term memories can last for a matter of days to as long as many decades. Types of Long-Term Memory Long-term memory is usually divided into two types Ã¢â¬â declaratively (explicit) memory ND procedural (implicit) memory. Declarative includes all of the memories that are available in consciousness. Declarative memory can be further divided into episodic memory (specific events) and semantic memory (knowledge about the world). Procedural memory involves memories of body movement and how to use objects in the environment. How to drive a car or use a computer are examples of procedural memor ies. 5. A deeper understanding about Autobiographical and Semantic Memory According to human-memory. Net, Autobiographical or Episodic memory is a memory system consisting of experiences recollected from an individual's life.Individuals can see themselves as actors in these events, and the emotional charge and the entire situation surrounded by the event is usually part of the memory. On the other hand, Semantic memory is a more structured record of facts, meanings, concepts and knowledge about the external world that we have attained. As stated by Luke Mastic, semantic memory is generally derived from the episodic memory, in that we learn new facts or concepts from our experiences, and the episodic memory is considered to support and underpin semantic memory. 6. Why do we forget? Lucid research. M says that the human memory is a system which is intended to remember information as well as forget information. Generally, we only retain the information we need for as long as we need it , and then it is forgotten. The human brain is constantly bombarded with huge amount of knowledge, and even though the information storage capacity of the human brain is very large, if we store every single item of information that ever reached our senses from the moment we were born, our memory would totally be overloaded before we started school. The fact is: we simply do not need to retain most of the information we receive each day.We only need to preserve some of that information and can safely forget the rest. The trick is to make sure that the information we do need is stored properly in memory ready for memory for a short time provided we strive to keep it there (e. G. By thinking about it or by rehearsing it to ourselves). This process is called short-term memory or at times working memory because we use this when working on any activity, such as listening to a conversation. But unless we also make an active effort to store that information in long-term memory in a semantic form, it will be forgotten very rapidly.Once in long-term memory, information is reasonably permanent. However, if we don't use that information we are likely to find a difficult to access when we need it, and the information is not stored very efficiently, it will also be difficult to access. When we say we have forgotten some item of information what we really mean is either: (a) the information was never properly store in long-term memory in the first place, or (b) the information has been stored in long-term memory but we can't find it because it has been stored in an disorganized way and/or because we haven't used that information for ages. 7.How do we remember, and why do we forget? An article by Shish Uranus said that the notion of memory is so intriguing that we've come up with more metaphors for it than for any other mental phenomenon. Early theories predicted a memory Ã¢â¬Å"IngramÃ¢â¬ 24, a literal text written by the body to describe past experiences. Freud popularize d descriptions of repressed memories, experiences physically buried in the depths of the subconscious. Modern descriptions are dominated by analogies to computers, in which the human brain is a hard disk that stores experience in electronic files and folders. Our memory represents a change in who we are.Our habits, our ideologies, our hopes and fears are all influenced by what we remember in the past. At the most basic level, we remember because the connections between our brains' neurons change; each experience primes the brain for the next experience. 8. How does the Brain process information Chris McKee said that information processing starts with input from the sensory organs, which transform physical stimuli such as touch, heat, sound waves, or photons of light into electrochemical signals. The sensory information is repeatedly transformed by the algorithms of the brain in both bottom-up and top-down processing.For example, when looking at a picture of a black box on a white ba ckground, bottom-up processing puts together very simple information such as color, orientation, and where the borders of the object are Ã¢â¬â where the color changes significantly over a short space Ã¢â¬â to decide that you are seeing a box. Top-down processing uses the decisions made at some steps of the bottom-up process to speed up your recognition of the box. Top-down processing in this example might help you identify the object as a black box rather than a box-shaped hole in the white background.Once information is processed to a degree, an attention filter decides owe important the signal is and which cognitive processes it should be made available to. For example, although your brain processes every blade of grass when you look down at your shoes, a healthy attention filter prevents you from noticing them individually. In contrast, you might pick out your name, even when spoken in a noisy room. There are many stages of processing, and the results of processing are 9. W hy do some people have better memory than other people According to Joyce Ward, people vary in the efficiency of their long-term memory.Some have a good memory and some poor long-term memory. This is probably determined partly by hereditary. But research has shown that most of the difference between people with good and poor memory can be attributed to the methods they use to learn that information in the first place. By developing the appropriate memory strategies we automatically store information in a more organized and efficient way that makes it easier for us to locate when we need it. Despite individual differences in memory, research indicates that in most people memory can be improved significantly by appropriate training. His does not mean that we can enlarge the storage capacity of our memory, what it means is that we can make our Emory more efficient, so that it is more likely to absorb new information and hold that information in a way that makes it easy for us to find i t again immediately when we need it. In order for the brain to process information, it must first be stored. There are multiple types of memory, including sensory, working, and long-term. First, information is encoded. There are types of encoding specific to each type of sensory stimuli.For example, verbal input can be encoded structurally, referring to what the printed word looks like, phonemically, referring to what the word sounds like, or semantically, referring to what the word means. Once information is stored, it must be maintained. Some animal studies suggest that working memory, which stores information for roughly 20 seconds, is maintained by an electrical signal looping through a particular series of neurons for a short period of time. Information in long- term memory is hypothesized to be maintained in the structure of certain types of proteins. 0. Capacity of the Human Memory According to Robert Gonzales, the comparison between the human brain and a computer is not a pe rfect one, but it does lend itself to some interesting lines of inquiry. The capacity of an average human head varies, depending on who you ask. Some experts estimates it in as low as 1 terabyte or approximately 1000 gigabytes. The reason behind the 100-terabyte estimate still has its flaws. It assumes, for example, that each synapse store 1 byte of information. In reality, each one could conceivably store more or less than that. 1 1 .Improving the memory No. 1: Stay Mentally Active Just as physical activity helps keep your body in shape, mentally stimulating activities help keep your brain in shape. Do things that challenge your mind such as solving crossword puzzles and learning to play an instrument. No. 2: Socialize regularly Social interaction helps ward of depression and stress, both of which can contribute and other. No. 3: Get organized You are more likely to forget things if your home is cluttered and your notes are in not in order. No. 4: Focus Limit distractions, and don' t try to do many things at once.If you focus on the information that you're trying to remember, you'll be more likely to recall it later. Understanding Ã¢â¬â if we understand the information it will be easier for us to remember, and if we understand how memory works, it is easier to make it work well for us personally Practice Ã¢â¬â the more often one does an activity, the more likely he/she will member it- Memory Strategies Ã¢â¬â ways of processing information that will help a person remember well. Organization Ã¢â¬â this ensure that information is stored in a more meaningful and well-organized way which is easy for the brain to recall it. 2. Tips for enhancing your ability to learn and remember According to helped. Org, these are some ways on how one can enhance his/her ability to learn and remember. 0 Pay attention Ã¢â¬â You can't remember something if you never learned it, and you can't learn something?that is, encode it into your brain?if you don't pay enough att ention to it. It takes about eight seconds of intense focus to process a piece of information into your memory. If you're easily distracted, pick a quiet place where you won't be interrupted. Involve as many senses as possible.Try to relate information to colors, textures, smells, and tastes. The physical act of rewriting information can help imprint it onto your brain. Even if you're a visual learner, read out loud what you want to remember. Relate information to what you already know. Connect new data to information you already remember, whether it's new material that builds on previous knowledge, or something as simple as an dress of someone who lives on a street where you already know someone. For more complex material, focus on understanding basic ideas rather than memorizing isolated details.
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Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 832 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/09/11 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? Faouzi NOURI-GIRONES CIT 071807 Compare and contrast traditional and modern families Since the nineteenth century, in the western societies, family patterns changed under the forces of industrialisation and urbanisation. Another factor which has been involved in those changes is the growing intervention of the state, by legislative action, in the domestic affairs of the family. As a result of these trends, the modern Ã¢â¬Å"nuclearÃ¢â¬ family has been substituted for the traditional extended family. The increase of values such as individualism and egalitarism has influenced the patterns of modern family. Although traditional and modern families share similarities in terms of constitutional concept and milieu of love and care, they have several differences in term of family size and gender roles. Traditional and modern families share similarities in terms of constitutional concept. As the traditional family was, modern family is still on institutional component of western societies. In other words, both are a Ã¢â¬Å"unit structureÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"basic organismÃ¢â¬ of which society is composed. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Compare and Contrast Traditional and Modern Families" essay for you Create order As an institution, traditional and modern families similarly have to complete functions such as procreation and socialization of children. For example, even though the modern family has decreased in size, it is still the common environment where children are born; receive a moral education, where their tendencies are disciplined and where their aspirations are encouraged. Therefore, to reassure the pessimist sociologist of the early twentieth century, family evolution has not lead to desinstitutionalization. Another similarity between traditional and modern families is that both are a favourable milieu for love and care. As it was in the traditional family there is in the modern family a formidable tie between husband and wife, which springs from an elective affinity and symbolises love. In the warmness of the family this love spreads amid the children who tend to experience it in their adult life. In addition, in the traditional families the mother usually bore the sole responsibility of the child caring. Modern parents now share this responsibility together because of social and work constraints. However, holidays which are not common in the traditional family, allow them to spend quality time with their children. Moreover in many modern families the father becomes a house worker, to provide for the needs of his children. As the statistics shown in the United Kingdom in 2001, 155 000 fathers were stay home husbands. All in all, the emphasis on nurturing children can be seen in traditional and modern families, alike. Apart from the similarities mentioned above, traditional and modern families have several differences in the areas of family size and gender roles. One major difference between the traditional and modern family is the decrease in family size. The traditional family tends to be extended with three or more generations in the same household because it provides a strong union between its members. Another reason for a large household is that usually farming was the principal economic activity of the family 1 members. In contrast, the modern family household contains two generations, parents and dependants children. Unlike the traditional family the modern family lives in small houses due to the fact that big houses are expensive and also because modern families usually live in cities. In addition the modern mothers use contraceptive medicine to reduce the chance to have babies whereas traditional mothers did not use birth control. Statistics from the National Office show that the average number of children by women born in 1934 decreased from 2. 46 to 1. 76 for women born in mid 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s. To sum up, the migration of the family to the cities, financial constraint and birth control contributed to the decrease in family seize. Another difference is the shift which occurred in the role of male and female within the transition from traditional to modern family. In the traditional family the male was dominant; he was the breadwinner, the sole financial provider to the family. In part related to this, the women were dependant on her husband. In fact, she had to obey not only her husband but also the other males living in the household. Conversely, in the modern family there are equal rights between male and female, as women has the right to enter the workforce and be financially independent. Therefore, the commitment of women in the economic affairs of the family has contributed to set up a mutual respect in the modern family. Furthermore, in the modern family fathers are no longer the authoritarian leaders, very often they discuss with their family before making important decision. As a result owing to the change in gender role, there has been a great improvement in the relationship between modern family members. To conclude, although, traditional and modern families differ in many areas such as family size, division of responsibilities of labour between the sexes; they share more than one common universal institutional concept. Furthermore, their similarity as an environment of love and caring as much as the differences above are the produce of societies advances. Therefore, there is no reason for people to think that family evolution is declining Word count: 839 2